네이버 연관채널 0네이버 연관채널 1네이버 연관채널 2
  • 2016-002
공공SW 생태계 선진화 연구
날짜2017.06.22
조회수5099
    • 1. 연구 목적 및 구성
    • 이 연구에서는 IT서비스 산업의 글로벌 도약방향을 한국 기업의 실정에 맞게 설정하고, 도약의 조건을 살핀다. 도약의 조건은 역량, 제도, 기술적인 측면에서 구체화할 수 있다. 역량 관점에서는 현재의 역량 수준을 진단하고 필요역량 대비 부족한 역량을 보완하는 방안을 모색한다. 제도, 기술적 관점에서는 누가 공공SW시장에 참여해야 하는가라는 주체중심의 논의에서 벗어나, 변화하는 글로벌 SW환경과 기술에 맞게 국내 대·중소기업이 상생할 수 있는 방안을 제시한다.
    • 1장에서는 공공SW 시장 현황 및 생태계 이슈를 살펴보고, 관련 기존 연구를 고찰해 본 후, 연구의 목적 및 구성을 기술한다.
    • 2장에서는 공공SW가 속한 IT서비스 산업의 본질적인 특성과 이에 바탕을 둔 도약방향을 제시한다. 이를 위해 연구 틀에 맞게 해외사례를 분석하고 도약을 위한 조건을 정의한 후, 이에 따른 정부의 역할을 제안한다.
    • 3장에서는 설정한 도약방향에 비추어 현재역량을 분석하고 역량을 보완할 방안을 제시한다. 이를 위해 요구사항을 도출·분석·설계·구현·검수하는 요구공학 역량을 발주기관과 수행기업의 역량으로 나누어 분석하고, 부족한 역량을 식별한 후 이를 극복하는 방안을 제시한다.
    • 4장에서는 도약방향으로 나아가는데 기회가 될 기술패러다임의 변화로 클라우드를 중심으로 하는 서비스화를 식별하고, 해당 패러다임에 부합하는 정책과 거버넌스 방안을 도출한다.
    • 마지막 5장에서는 정책적 활용 방안과 기대효과를 포함한 결론으로 마무리한다.
    • 2. 한국 IT서비스 산업의 도약방안
    • 미국IT서비스의 부활과 인도IT서비스의 위기, 그리고 IT서비스의 본질을 고려했을 때 서비스화와 분석·설계 등 상류공정으로의 비즈니스 모델 이동이 우리의 방향이다.
    • 첫 번째 방향인 서비스화는 전 세계적인 추세로서 미국기업은 비즈니스 프로세스의 분석·설계역량을 바탕으로 BPO(Business Process Outsourcing) 사업 영역에서 성장하고 있다. 국내의 삼성SDS와 SK, 대만의 홍하이社도 BPO에서 성과를 내고 있다. 두 번째 방향은 현재의 주력인 SI개발과 유지보수에서 상류공정으로 이동하여 컨설팅과 분석·설계에 집중하는 것이다. 인도는 미국기업 없이 자체적으로 BPO와 분석·설계를 수행할 대상 비즈니스가 없었지만, 우리나라는 자체적으로 이러한 비즈니스를 꽤 보유하고 있다. 대표적인 예가 민간 대기업·중견기업과 공공부문의 전자정부이며, 그런 의미에서 우리의 갈 길은 미국은 물론 인도와도 다르다. 상기의 도약방안으로 나아가기 위한 기회의 창은 우선 디지털 전환이라는 기술 패러다임의 변화에서 찾을 수 있다. 디지털화로 인해 과거보다 데이터가 대량으로 빠르게 발생하는 것과, 지식노동의 인공지능화 추세도 새로운 기회다.
    • 두 번째 기회의 창은 늘어나는 유지보수 비중으로 대표되는 비즈니스 사이클의 변화이다. 그 예로 금융시장 차세대 프로젝트가 SI구축의 비중을 줄이고, 공공시장도 유지보수 비중은 74%로 증가했다. 유지보수는 BPO(Business Process Outsourcing) 같은 장기적인 서비스 모델로 전환하도록 고객을 설득하기에 유리하다.
    • 마지막 기회의 창으로는 정부의 제도가 있다. 공공부문에서 상류공정(요건정의→기본설계)을 확정한 후에 하류공정(상세설계→구현→테스트)을 별도로 수행하는 분할발주의 제도화를 제안한다. 상류공정은 분석·설계 전문업체가, 하류공정은 구현 전문업체가 나누어 수행하는 경험을 축적하게 될 것이다.
    • 3. 공공SW 요구공학 역량의 분석과 확보 방안
    • 요구공학 역량이란, 고객의 요구사항을 상류공정과 하류공정 간에 연계·조정·검수하는 역량이다. 현재 발주기관과 수행기업이 보유하고 있는 요구공학 역량은 간이법으로 개산견적을 할 수 있는 수준(3.0)에 조금 못 미치는 정도(2.8)이다. 프로세스 역량 수준, 사업 결과 간 관계 분석의 결과를 보면, 발주기관은 요구사항 상세화를 위한 자신의 역할과 업무 범위에 대한 인식이 부족한 것으로 보인다.
    • 나아가, 수행기업은 상류공정(요건정의→기본설계) 에서 설계 산출물을 확정해야 한다고 생각하나, 발주기관은 하류공정(상세설계→구현→검수) 에서 과업이 확정된다고 생각하는 경향이 강하다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 결국, 수행기업이 전체 역량을 견인하더라도 발주기관이 설계 산출물 확정을 하류공정으로 지연시키고 있어, 주어진 일정과 비용 내에서 공공SW사업을 성공시키는데 큰 제약이 된다.
    • 이러한 관행을 개선하고 앞서 제시한 개선 방향으로 나아가기 위해서는 요구사항을 상세화하며 설계를 강화하고 기술역량 축적을 달성하기 위한 제도적인 학습기회를 제공할 필요가 있다. 현재 상황에서는 발주기관이 요구공학 역량이 떨어지고 상대적으로 계약관계에서 유리한 위치를 차지하고 있기 때문에 발주기관 스스로 요구사항 상세화에 앞설 유인이 부족하다. 따라서 먼저 용역 관리 방식의 선진화, 즉 투입인력 관리에서 성과중심의 관리로 이행하면서 기술역량 축적의 기회를 열어주고, 동시에 요구사항 상세화 고시를 보완·확대 시행하여 공공SW 사업의 요구공학 역량을 확보한 후, 분할 발주를 정착시켜 설계역량을 강화해야 한다. 마지막으로 역량을 보유한 분석·설계 전문기업의 육성을 위해 법적인 근거를 마련해 줄 필요가 있다.
    • 4. 서비스화 중심의 미래지향적 공공SW 모델
    • 장기적으로는 서비스로 전환하는 기술 패러다임 변화를 활용하기 위해 SI구축 비중을 줄이고 클라우드 비중을 확대해야 한다. IT서비스기업이 CSB(Cloud Service Broker)로 활동하거나, 축적한 기술을 패키징한 후 마켓에 올려 글로벌 서비스로 제공하는 것이다. 공공SW에서 이를 촉진하는 클라우드 수요를 확대하기 위해서는 마켓플레이스와 공공SW 거버넌스의 고도화가 중요하다고 보았다.
    • 혁신적 SW도입을 위한 조달 플랫폼으로서 국내 디지털마켓플레이스(씨앗)는 영국의 디지털마켓플레이스를 벤치마킹 했다. 그런데, 영국보다 앞서 디지털마켓플레이스를 구축한 미국은 서비스 종료와 재도전이라는 특별한 경험을 가지고 있어 정책 추진의 타산지석으로 삼을 수 있다. 영국의 디지털마켓플레이스보다 3년 앞선 미국 Apps.Gov는 3년간의 운영 끝에 서비스 간소화, 사용률 저조 등의 이유로 2012년 종료되었으며 3년간의 재준비 끝에 최근 서비스를 재개하였다. 실패에도 불구하고 오바마 정권 8년을 걸쳐 장기 과제로 추진된 점에서 디지털마켓플레이스를 통한 공공SW조달 혁신은 기존 규제와 제도를 동시에 정비해 가야하는 일임을 시사한다.
    • 국내의 경우, 공공SW 부문의 거버넌스가 파편화되어 있고 전담 부서에 많은 변화가 발생함에 따라 공공SW 환경 변화에 기민하게 대응하지 못하는 구조적 한계가 존재한다. 이에 따라, 공공SW 거버넌스 추진을 위한 원칙을 확립하고, 전 세계가 처해 있는 공통적인 대외 환경 요소를 고려하여 공통 요소를 도출하되, 주요국과 한국의 거버넌스 추진 상황을 비교하여 조정하는 것을 검토한다. 결론적으로, 절충형 거버넌스 구조를 유지하되, 자원 공유, 표준 관리, 중복 예방, 학습 촉진, 통제, 규모의 경제 등의 관점에서 범정부 차원의 역할이 강화되고 있는 방향성을 고려해야 한다. 이에 따라 국가정보화, 전자정부, ICT융복합을 포괄하는 공공SW의 범위와 역할을 재정립하고 공공SW 추진 전담기관의 일원화를 통해 범정부 차원의 디지털 전환 리더십을 확보해야 한다.
    • 5. 결론과 시사점
    • 1~4장 까지 논의를 종합하여 기업전략과 정부정책 시사점을 논의한다. 상류·하류 분업체계, 디지털 전환 기회 포착, 서비스화 패러다임을 위해 선투자와 마케팅을 포함한 기업차원의 전략 전환을 제안한다. 정부정책으로 분할발주, 헤드카운팅 폐지, 클라우드 등 ‘제도적 학습’기회를 제공할 것을 강조하는 것으로 마무리 한다.
  • SUMMARY
    • 1. Purpose and Necessity of Research
    • Public SW business includes the development and operation of SW as well as commercial SW, but excludes the HW business side of informatization business. Its current market size is around 3 trillion won, which accounts for about 75% of all informatization business. Although the public SW market takes up less than 10% of the total SW industry, it amounts to 40% of the competitive market, excluding the captive market dominated by large companies. It is also an important market since it leads the market rule through regulations and promotional policies. The private sector utilizes guidelines on SW compensation, ordering type, audit standard, manpower management standard and others in the public sector as the reference.
    • Indices show that the public SW market is facing deteriorating profitability as the fixed costs are increasing. New development projects have been gradually decreasing to reach 26%, while the portion has increased to 74% in 2016. Moreover, more than half of major companies are showing negative profit or an operating profit rate around 0%, and the filed bidding of public SI projects of 2.0 billion won or more has rapidly increased to 46%.
    • There have been efforts to identify issues that pose obstacles to making the public SW ecosystem sounder. The issues raised at the regular meetings of the Special Advisory Committee can largely be divided into the six following types: frequent task changes caused by the unclear scope of tasks; the practice of head counting; a distorted concept of maintenance and responsibility for security; the simplification of the ordering process; the easing of restrictions on participation by large companies; and the improvement of contracting practices. In a survey of 70 project clients and 139 project executing companies on the prioritization of public SW issues, both project clients and project executing companies pointed out that the clarification of tasks was the biggest difficulty and structural problem facing them. The lack of clarity surrounding tasks makes it difficult to specify the scope of tasks and thus leads to poor design and increased risk to both project owners and project executing companies. Moreover, project executing companies are forced to implement changes on demand by the project owners without even recognizing that it is the scope change. As a result, project execution companies perform work that is the scope change but is not compensated, which leads to continuous reworking and even to court disputes. Therefore, there is a vicious cycle of shifting on the blame, while subcontracting and the loss of outstanding manpower are leading to deterioration of the public SW ecosystem and loss of competitiveness in the SW industry.
    • However, existing studies on public SW have tried to find a solution by easing the restriction on participating companies by size, dividing them into large companies and small and medium-sized companies, in order to consolidate the ecosystem. The approach was limited to seeking measures to improve fundamental competitiveness, since it only covered the scheme aspect out of the capability, technology and scheme which are the main factors of the ecosystem. On the other hand, existing studies on the IT service industry have focused on increasing the competitiveness of the domestic industry and identified a direction for improvement by analyzing the cases of global leading businesses. However, these studies were limited in that they did not consider the capability gap between the global leading companies and domestic companies, and it is difficult for late movers to follow the leading companies without any adjustment. Moreover, it is questionable whether the improvement measures were applicable and effective since the studies did not measure the capability level of the domestic industry adequately. In addition, until now most public SW policies have been popular measures which could be enforced quickly. However, they can lead to misdirected practices and thus deteriorate the ecosystem even more. Directionless or misconceived policies and strategies inevitably result in the participants in the ecosystem losing their focus and priority, and thus become short-lived.
    • Therefore, this study is intended to establish a direction for the global expansion of IT service industry that is suited to the domestic industry, and to investigate the criteria for growth. The criteria for growth can be concretized as capability, system, and technology viewpoints. From the viewpoint of capability, the study diagnoses the current capability level of domestic industry and presents measures for supplementing deficiencies in capability. From the system and technology viewpoints, however, it stays away from discussion on such subjects as who should participate in the public SW market, and presents measures that promote the mutual growth of both large and small domestic companies according to the changing global SW environment and technologies.
    • 2. Scope and structure of Research
    • Chapter 1 presents the purpose and organization of the study after reviewing the status of the current public SW market and ecosystem system and contemplating preceding studies.
    • Chapter 2 presents the essential characteristics of the IT service industry, of which public SW is a part, and measures aimed at stimulating growth based on such characteristics. To that end, it analyzes overseas cases that are relevant to the frame of this study, defines the criteria for growth, and suggests the government's role in meeting the criteria.
    • Chapter 3 analyzes the current capability and presents measures for supplementing the capability deficiency for the direction of growth. The capability of requirement engineering to identify, analyze, design, implement and audit the requirements is analyzed for the project clients and project executing companies separately. Then, the capability deficiency is identified and measures for overcoming it are presented.
    • Chapter 4 identifies cloud-centered services as a technology paradigm shift that can provide opportunities for the direction of growth, and deduces the policies and governance measures that conform to the paradigm.
    • Lastly, Chapter 5 presents the conclusion, including the policy utilization measures and expected benefits.
    • 3. Measures for the Growth of Korea's IT Service Industry
    • The opportunity window for growth of Korea's IT industry can be found in the technology paradigm shift that is digital transformation. The digitalization of traditional industry is a major growth opportunity for the IT service industry. The scope and speed of digital transformation, which goes beyond just digitalization to promote the evolution of business models and the ecosystem, will increase. Furthermore, ever greater quantities of data are being generated more quickly, and data analysis and design has become the specialty of the IT service industry. The application of artificial intelligence to knowledge labor may present another opportunity. A good example is IBM's provision of a service for diagnosing a patient's condition and advising on the treatment using its artificial intelligence Watson to a cancer hospital in the US and the Gil Hospital in Korea.
    • The second window of opportunity is the change in the business cycle represented by the declining portion of SI implementation and the increasing portion of maintenance. Good examples of this are the decreased portion of SI implementation in next-generation projects in the financial sector and the rapid decrease of the portion of SI implementation from 64% in 2013 to 26% in 2016, and the increase of the portion of maintenance to 74% in the public sector. Maintenance is more profitable than SI, while sales and customer relations are long-term based and steady; thus it is easier to persuade clients to adopt a long-term service model such as BPO (Business Process Outsourcing).
    • The last window of opportunity is the government's role. Jun-yeon Kim (2014) and Ho-seok Yu and Song-hee Kim (2016) proposed the institutionalization of the partitioning order by finalizing the upstream processes (requirement definition - basic design) and then executing the downstream processes (detail design - implementation - test) separately in the public sector. Visualization and quantification techniques were also proposed as technical measures for the partitioning order (Ho-seok Yu, Gi-bo Shim and Jun-yeong Kim, 2016). If the practices of analysis and design specializing companies that execute the upstream processes and implementing companies that execute the downstream processes are accumulated, the market will naturally evolve toward remote development.
    • 4. Analysis of Requirement Engineering Capability
    • The acquisition of requirement engineering capability, which is the ability to interface, conciliate and examine customer requirements between the upstream processes and the downstream processes, is essential if Korea's IT service industry is to make another leap forward. The requirement engineering capability currently possessed by project clients and project executing companies is 2.8, which is slightly below level (3.0) needed for schematic cost estimation with a simple method. The capabilities of project executing companies generally exceed those of project clients. The results of an analysis of process capability level and relationships between project results showed that the project clients suffered from an inadequate recognition of their roles and work scope for specification of requirements. Moreover, while the project executing companies thought that the upstream processes (requirement definition - basic design) must finalize the design outputs, the project clients strongly tended to think they were finalized by the downstream processes (detail design - implementation - test). Since the project clients defer the finalization of design outputs to the downstream processes even when the project executing companies lead the overall capability, it acts as a major constraint on the successful completion of public SW projects. Moreover, if the project client does not faithfully examine the design, the project executing company has insufficient incentive to improve the design quality, which leads to uncompensated task changes and frequent reworks, and even to court disputes. The situation is not beneficial to the project clients either.
    • To improve such practices and move forward to the above-presented improvement direction, institutional incentives for detailing the requirements, strengthening the design, and accumulating technical capability are necessary. Since the project clients generally have less requirement engineering capability and are in an advantageous position when contracting, they have less incentive to voluntarily detail the requirements. Therefore, it is necessary to upgrade the service management from input manpower management to result-centered management to provide opportunities to accumulate technical capability. At the same time, the design capability must be strengthened by establishing the partitioning order after securing the requirement engineering capability in public SW projects by supplementing and expanding the detailed examination of requirements. The legal system, which includes the Software Industry Promotion Act and the Engineering Industry Promotion Act, must also be reformed to establish the grounds for cultivating analysis and design specializing companies.
    • 5. Service-centered and Future-Oriented Public SW Model
    • To utilize the technology paradigm shift to services in the long term, the portion of SI implementation must be decreased while the portion of cloud must be expanded. The IT service company acts as a CSB (Cloud Service Broker) or packages the accumulated technologies and provides them in the market as global services. The advancement of marketplace and public SW governance is judged to be important in expanding the demand for the cloud service to promote it in the public SW.
    • The domestic digital marketplace (seed), as the procurement platform for the introduction of innovative SW, benchmarked the Digital Marketplace in the UK. Since the US, which built its own digital marketplace before the UK, has the special experience of service being terminated and retried, it can serve as a good lesson. The US-based Apps.Gov, which was launched 3 years before the Digital Marketplace in the UK, was terminated due to service simplification and poor utilization in December 2012 after three years in operation. The service was resumed recently (March 2016) after three years of further preparation. Despite the failure, the fact that it was implemented as a long-term program throughout the eight years of the Obama administration implies that the innovation of public SW procurement through a digital marketplace requires the upgrading of existing regulations and schemes.
    • Due to the variations in demand and the related variations in cost, the cloud service has the characteristic that it cannot be procured through a blanket contract. It is very important to not only implement the system interface so as to enable business and the government to use it easily, but also to make it conform to the existing procurement system and regulation, such as the ordering process, contracting, and settlement. The innovation of public SW will be possible when the outstanding private sector manpower is combined with active government leadership. However, there is a limitation in innovating with internal manpower only; and tendency to maintain the status quo and unwillingness to give up vested interests always exists. Therefore, it is necessary to boldly deploy external private sector experts in such innovation projects in the public sector. However, it is still difficult to generate satisfactory outcomes without strong support from the top leadership, and the governance needed to secure the appropriateness and policy importance of projects must be established first. Moreover, the project implementation adopted bold methods, such as agile and open source, and it is necessary to consider applying a method of developing the government's IT manpower to collaborate with outside manpower in order to reflect the requirements with agility.
    • To boost national level innovation and national competitiveness through public SW, it is necessary to change public SW governance accordingly. Developed countries such as the US, the UK, Japan and Australia are trying to evolve to smart government, which is the final stop of the public informatization development model presented by Gartner, through complete digitalization of the whole nation. Breaking away from the conventional e-government viewpoint, they realized the need for a totally different approach in terms of focus, scope, approach method, technology and challenge, and are implementing change management and a system of governance that are commensurate with the new approach.
    • Although Korea has grown into a global national informatization powerhouse by actively implementing informatization led by the public sector, the actual outcomes have been limited as its national competitiveness is far below that of other developed countries. Moreover, the governance system is fragmented, and there is a structural limitation in that the ministry in charge goes through too many changes too often and thus cannot cope with changes in the public SW environment very quickly. As such, the principle for implementing public SW governance must be firmly established, and common factors must be deduced with consideration to the common external factors faced by the whole world and adjusted by comparing the status of governance implementation in major countries and Korea. Moreover, an implementation system to manage changes in public SW governance for inspecting and improving public SW governance must be established. In other words, a new direction, in which the government-wide role is more emphasized from the viewpoint of resource sharing, standard management, duplication prevention, learning promotion, control and economy of size, must be considered, while the compromise governance structure must be maintained. As such, the government-wide digital transformation leadership must be secured by reestablishing the scope and role of public SW, which includes national informatization, e-government and ICT convergence, and by unifying the agencies involved in the implementation of public SW.